It’s that time of the year again — time to pass out those W2 forms to your employees. And with the start of a new year, it’s always a sure bet that there will be changes to the tax law, and 2014 is no exception.
Filing Season Delayed by 10 Days
Taxpayers should note that the 2014 tax season opens on Jan. 31. In most years, the filing season opens on Jan. 21, but due to the 16-day government shutdown in October, the filing season is delayed by 10 days this year. No paper or electronic returns will be processed by the IRS before this date.
The April 15 tax deadline is set by statute and will remain in place, although taxpayers can request an automatic six-month extension to file their tax return.
Individuals: For 2014, more than 40 tax provisions are affected by inflation adjustments, including personal exemptions, AMT exemption amounts and foreign earned income exclusion, as well as most retirement contribution limits.
This year’s tax rate structure, which ranges from 10 – 39.6%, remains the same last year, but tax-bracket thresholds increase for each filing status. Standard deductions and the personal exemption have also been adjusted upward to reflect inflation.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)
Exemption amounts for the AMT, which was made permanent by the American Taxpayer Relief Act (ATRA) are indexed for inflation and allow the use of nonrefundable personal credits against the AMT. For 2014, the exemption amounts are $52,800 for individuals and $82,100 for married couples filing jointly.
For taxable years beginning in 2014, the amount that can be used to reduce the net unearned income reported on the child’s return that is subject to the “kiddie tax,” is $1,000 (same as 2013). The same $1,000 amount is used to determine whether a parent may elect to include a child’s gross income in the parent’s gross income and to calculate the “kiddie tax”. For example, one of the requirements for the parental election is that a child’s gross income for 2014 must be more than $1,000 but less than $10,000.
For 2014, the net unearned income for a child under the age of 19 (or a full-time student under the age of 24) that is not subject to “kiddie tax” is $2,000.
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)
Contributions to a Health Savings Account (HSA) are used to pay current or future medical expenses of the account owner, his or her spouse, and any qualified dependent. Medical expenses must not be reimbursable by insurance or other sources and do not qualify for the medical expense deduction on a federal income tax return.
A qualified individual must be covered by a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) and not be covered by other health insurance with the exception of insurance for accidents, disability, dental care, vision care or long-term care.
This year, a qualifying HDHP must have a deductible of at least $1,250 for self-only coverage or $2,500 for family coverage (unchanged from 2013) and must limit annual out-of-pocket expenses of the beneficiary to $6,350 for self-only coverage (up $100 from 2013) and $12,700 for family coverage (up $200 from 2013).
Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs)
There are two types of Medical Savings Accounts: the Archer MSA ¬– created to help self-employed individuals and employees of certain small employers – and the Medicare Advantage MSA, which is also an Archer MSA, and is designated by Medicare to be used solely to pay the qualified medical expenses of the account holder. To be eligible for a Medicare Advantage MSA, you must be enrolled in Medicare. Both MSAs require that you enroll in a high deductible health plan (HDHP).
Self-only coverage – For taxable years beginning in 2014, the term “high deductible health plan” means, for self-only coverage, a health plan that has an annual deductible that is not less than $2,200 (up $50 from 2013) and not more than $3,250 (up $50 from 2013), and under which the annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) for covered benefits do not exceed $4,350 (up $50 from 2013).
Family coverage – For taxable years beginning in 2014, the term “high deductible health plan” means, for family coverage, a health plan that has an annual deductible that is not less than $4,350 (up $50 from 2013) and not more than $6,550 (up $100 from 2013), and under which the annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) for covered benefits do not exceed $8,000 (up $150 from 2013).
AGI Limit for Deductible Medical Expenses
In 2014, the deduction threshold for deductible medical expenses remains at 10% of adjusted gross income (AGI); however, if either you or your spouse were age 65 or older as of Dec. 31, the new 10% of AGI threshold will not take effect until 2017. In other words, the 7.5% threshold continues to apply for tax years 2013-2016 for these individuals. In addition, if you or your spouse turns age 65, the 7.5% of AGI threshold applies for that year through 2016 as well. Starting in 2017, the 10% of AGI threshold applies to everyone.
Eligible Long-Term Care Premiums
Premiums for long-term care are treated the same as health care premiums and are deductible on your taxes subject to certain limitations. For people under the age of 40 at the end of 2014, the limitation is $370. People between the ages of 40 and 50 can deduct $700; people between the ages of 50 and 60 can deduct $1,400; people between the ages of 60 and 70 can deduct $3,720; the maximum deduction of $4,660 applies only to people over the age of 70.
The additional 0.9% Medicare tax on wages above $200,000 for individuals ($250,000 married filing jointly), which became effective last year, in 2013, remains in effect for 2014, as does the Medicare tax of 3.8% on investment (unearned) income for single taxpayers with modified adjusted gross income (AGI) more than $200,000 ($250,000 joint filers). Investment income includes dividends, interest, rents, royalties, gains from the disposition of property, and certain passive activity income. Estates, trusts and self-employed individuals are all liable for the new tax.
Foreign Earned Income Exclusion
For 2014, the foreign earned income exclusion amount is $99,200, up from $97,600 in 2013.
Long-Term Capital Gains and Dividends
In 2014 tax rates on capital gains and dividends remain the same as 2013 rates; however, threshold amounts are indexed for inflation. As such, for taxpayers in the lower tax brackets (10 and 15 percent), the rate remains 0%. For taxpayers in the four middle tax brackets, 25, 28, 33, and 35%, the rate is 15%. For an individual taxpayer in the highest tax bracket, 39.6%, whose income is at or above $406,750 ($457,600 married filing jointly), the rate for both capital gains and dividends is capped at 20%.
Pease and PEP (Personal Exemption Phaseout)
Both Pease (limitations on itemized deductions) and PEP (personal exemption phase-out) have been permanently extended (and indexed to inflation) for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, and in 2014, affect taxpayers with income at or below $254,200 for single filers and $305,050 for married filing jointly.
Estate and Gift Taxes
For an estate of any decedent during 2014, the basic exclusion amount is $5,340,000, indexed for inflation (up from $5,250,000 2013). The maximum tax rate remains at 40%. The annual exclusion for gifts also remains at $14,000.
Individuals – Tax Credits
In 2014, a non-refundable (only those individuals with tax liability will benefit) credit of up to $13,190 is available for qualified adoption expenses for each eligible child.
Earned Income Tax Credit
For tax year 2014, the maximum earned income tax credit (EITC) for low and moderate income workers and working families rises to $6,143, up from $6,044 in 2013. The credit varies by family size, filing status and other factors, with the maximum credit going to joint filers with three or more qualifying children.
Child Tax Credit
For tax year 2014, the child tax credit is $1,000 per child.
Child and Dependent Care Credit
If you pay someone to take care of your dependent (defined as being under the age of 13 at the end of the tax year or incapable of self-care) in order to work or look for work, you may qualify for a credit of up to $1,050 or 35% of $3,000 of eligible expenses in 2014. For two or more qualifying dependents, you can claim up to 35 percent of $6,000 (or $2,100) of eligible expenses. For higher income earners the credit percentage is reduced, but not below 20 percent, regardless of the amount of adjusted gross income.
Individuals – Education
American Opportunity Tax Credit and Lifetime Learning Credits
The American Opportunity Tax Credit (formerly Hope Scholarship Credit) was extended to the end of 2017 by ATRA. The maximum credit is $2,500 per student. The Lifetime Learning Credit remains at $2,000 per return.
Interest on Educational Loans
In 2014 (as in 2013), the $2,500 maximum deduction for interest paid on student loans is no longer limited to interest paid during the first 60 months of repayment. The deduction is phased out for higher-income taxpayers with modified AGI of more than $65,000 ($130,000 joint filers).
Individuals – Retirement Contribution Limits
The elective deferral (contribution) limit for employees who participate in 401(k), 403(b), most 457 plans, and the federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan remains unchanged at $17,500. Contribution limits for SIMPLE plans remains unchanged at $12,000. The maximum compensation used to determine contributions increases to $260,000 (up $5,000 from 2013).
Income Phase-out Ranges
The deduction for taxpayers making contributions to a traditional IRA is phased out for singles and heads of household who are covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan and have modified AGI between $60,000 and $70,000, up from $59,000 and $69,000 in 2013.
For married couples filing jointly, in which the spouse who makes the IRA contribution is covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan, the phase-out range is $96,000 to $116,000, up from $95,000 to $115,000. For an IRA contributor who is not covered by an employer-sponsored retirement plan and is married to someone who is covered, the deduction is phased out if the couple’s modified AGI is between $181,000 and $191,000, up from $178,000 and $188,000.
The modified AGI phase-out range for taxpayers making contributions to a Roth IRA is $181,000 to $191,000 for married couples filing jointly, up from $178,000 to $188,000 in 2013. For singles and heads of household, the income phase-out range is $114,000 to $129,000, up from $112,000 to $127,000. For a married individual filing a separate return who is covered by a retirement plan, the phase-out range remains $0 to $10,000.
In 2014, the AGI limit for the saver’s credit (also known as the retirement savings contribution credit) for low and moderate income workers is $60,000 for married couples filing jointly, up from $59,000 in 2013; $45,000 for heads of household, up from $44,250; and $30,000 for married individuals filing separately and for singles, up from $29,500.
Businesses Standard Mileage Rates
The rate for business miles driven is 56 cents per mile for 2014, down from 56.5 cents per mile in 2013.
Section 179 Expensing
For 2014 the maximum Section 179 expense deduction for equipment purchases decreases to $25,000 of the first $200,000 of business property placed in service during 2014. The bonus depreciation of 50% is gone, as is the accelerated deduction, where businesses can expense the entire cost of qualified real property in the year of purchase.
Transportation Fringe Benefits
If you provide transportation fringe benefits to your employees, in 2014 the maximum monthly limitation for transportation in a commuter highway vehicle as well as any transit pass is $130 down from $245 in 2013. The monthly limitation for qualified parking is $250.
While this checklist outlines important tax changes for 2014, additional changes in tax law are more than likely to come up during the year ahead.