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Toyota has built numerous four cylinder engine families over the years, but one that has been in use for quite a long time is the R-series. The R-series has been the main motor used in almost all Toyota pick-up trucks, as well as the rear-wheel-drive (RWD) Celica and Coronas.

The 20R was introduced in 1975 and used up until 1980. In 1981 the larger bore 22R was released. The R-series has a cast iron block, aluminum head, and is an overhead camshaft (OHC) design with the cam being driven by a timing chain.

The oil pump is mounted on the front timing cover and slips over the end of the crankshaft where it is driven by a splined gear at the end of the crank. The 20/22Rs were used in only RWD applications, never in a front-wheel-drive (FWD) vehicle. So when the RWD Corona was replaced in the U.S. by the FWD Camry in 1983, and the Celica went to front wheel drive in 1986, the only vehicles that continued to use the 22R were the pick-ups and the 4-Runner sport utility vehicles. However, there are quite a few older Toyota pick-ups still being used today and they seem to hold resale value fairly well, which should provide some demand for rebuilding the 22R engines.

One common mistake many people make when rebuilding this engine is to assume that 20R means 2.0L and 22R means 2.2L. Remember that in Toyota

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